Workers’ Resistance to the Russia-Ukraine War from both sides of the East-West Conflict

ASR 86 is significantly delayed, though it will go in the mail before the year is out. In the meantime, we will bring you some articles slated for the issue…

By John Kalwaic

The government of the Russian Federation attacked Ukraine in February, allegedly in the name of “denazification.” This conflict had been slowly brewing since 2014 when the Euromaidan movement toppled the pro-Russian government and led to a government much more aligned with the European Union, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the West in general. The Russian Federation and its president, Vladimir Putin, who functions as a dictator, wants to recreate the old empire that collapsed when the Soviet Union fell in 1991, after which Ukraine became an independent country. Putin and his allies are trying to reestablish Russia’s former status as the Russian Empire from 1721-1917 and the Soviet Union from 1917-1991. Right before the invasion of Ukraine, the Russian government and allied states helped repress an uprising in Kazakhstan. Continue reading

The War in Ukraine

Editorial, ASR 85 (Spring 2022)

By the time you read this, Russian forces may be in Kyiv, or not, depending on how the battle goes. Ukrainian resistance and Russian military incompetence has given the lie to Western tales of Russian military might that has fueled NATO expansionism since the end of the Cold War. 

What induced Putin to invade Ukraine now? The war has actually been ongoing since 2014, Continue reading

Anarchism in Ukraine, 1980s and 1990s (A Glossary)

This glossary of activists, organizations and publications was compiled to supplement the history of Ukrainian anarchism published in ASR 67:

Anarchiya. Newspaper, central organ of the Revolution Confederation of Anarcho-Syndicalists (RKAS). Published in Donetsk from 1993 to the present. First editor was Sergei Shevchenko. Numbering of issues was re-started several times; altogether about 100 issues have been published. Circulation: 1,000 – 5,000 copies.

Anarcho-Communist Revolutionary Union (AKRS). An anarchist organization of the perestroika period. Formed in 1988–1989. In contrast to most of the anarchists of the USSR during those years, AKRS adhered to the leftist (communist) ideals of traditional anarchism and oriented itself towards realizing them by violent, revolutionary means. Its organs were the newspapers Chernoye znamya [Black banner] (Leningrad, 1989–1990) and Solidarnost’ [Solidarity] (Moscow, 1989–1991). It broke up in early 1991 when the majority of activists shifted to Trotskyism (Leningrad) or “anarcho-capitalism” (Moscow), although small, isolated cells of AKRS persisted somewhat longer. Its successor twas the Federation of Revolutionary Anarchists (FRAN).

Anarcho-Syndikalist. Central informational and theoretical organ of RKAS. Published in 1994–2003 in Donetsk and Dnepropetrovsk. Editor Sergei Shevchenko, then Anatoliy Dubovik. Published 34 issues. Circulation 200–300 copies.

Anisimov, Yuriy (1962–2002).  Journalist, poet, writer from Zhitomir. Took part in the dissident movement, was persecuted by the KGB. Organizer of the Zhitomir anarchist union, a member of KAS, KAU, IWA-AIT, editor of the newspapers Cherniy Internatsional [The Black International] (1989) and Predtecha [Harbinger] (1990), director of the news agency Nestor and the bulletin of the same name (1991–1993). Remained an anarchist until the end of his life.

Association of Anarchist Movements (ADA). Federation of anarchist organizations of the USSR and countries of the former USSR. Created in the summer of 1990 as an alternative to KAS. Composed mostly of adherents of anarcho-individualism. Main published organs – the newspapers Noviy cvet [The New light] (Leningrad–Petersburg, 1989–2006), Gazyeta saratovskikh anarkhistov [Newspaper of the Saratov anarchists] (Saratov, 1990–1992), Byulleten’ An-Press [An-Press Bulletin] (Leningrad–Petersburg, 1990–1993), Vintovka [Rifle] (Petersburg, Yaroslavl’, 2003–2006), and others. In the 1990s was the most important anarchist formation in the ex-USSR. Affiliated for a time with the International of Anarchist Federations (IAF-IFA). Formally still exists.

Biocosmism. A philosophical doctrine aspiring to the complete liberation of the individual, which sets as its tasks the achievement of personal immortality, free movement through space, and the resurrection of all the dead. Claims to be scientific, but has much in common with mystical-occult teachings. In 1918–1919 the poet Aleksandr Svyatogor began to promote the ideas of biocosmism, and in 1920–1922 headed the organization “Creator of Russian and Muscovite Anarcho-Biocosmists.” The Soviet authorities rendered unofficial support to the “Creator,” using Svyatogor and his disciples to discredit and liquidate the anarchist movement.

Borzykin, Mikhail Borisovich (1962–). Musician poet, leader of the rock group “Televisor” (c. 1984). During perestroika one of the main figures of the rock underground, author of socially acute revolutionary songs (“Your papa – the fascist,” “A Fish rots from the head,” “Out of control”), leader of a protest action against Soviet censorship. One of the few rock musicians of the former USSR to remain independent of show business and the state, a regular participant in anti-government demonstrations of the 1990s – 2010s.

Bunt – delo pravoye [Insurrection is a just action]. Newspaper, organ of the Cherkassy anarchist union. Successor of the newspaper Makhnovets. Editor: Nikolay Ozimov. Published one (?) issue in early 1991.

Cherkassy Anarchist Union of Youth. Anarchist group in the city of Cherkassy. Existed 1993–1994. Membership: around 10 – 15. Subjected to constant pressure from right-wing nationalist groups, which led to its dissolution.

Chornaya subbota [Black Saturday]. Newspaper, organ of the Confederation of Independent Trade Union of the Zaporozhye Region. Published in 1990 by members of the Zaporozhye branch of KAS. Editor: Artur Grigoryan. Four issues.

Chornaya znamya [Black Banner]. Newspaper, organ of AKRS. Published in Leningrad from August 1989 to August 1990. Editor: Dmitriy Zhvaniya. Twelve issues. Circulation: up to 3,000 copies. First issues played an important role in establishing the anarcho-communist movement in the USSR. In the summer of 1990, the leaders of the AKRS began a process of evolving towards Trotskyism which was reflected in the content of the newspaper. In the autumn of 1991 the remnants of AKRS attempted to revive Chornaya znamya under the editorship of Viktor Shchepotov, but were able to publish only one issue.

Chorniy Internatsional [Black International].  Newspaper, organ of Zhitomir anarcho-syndicalists. Published in Zhitomir in late 1989. Editor: Yuriy Anisimov. Three issues published with a circulation of 500.

Committee of Ukrainian Anarcho-Nationalists (KUAN). Group of Kievan anarchists. A breakaway from the extreme right-wing National-Democratic Party of Ukraine. In 1991 it consisted of two members (Yuriy Dokukin and Oleg Novikov). Concerned itself exclusively with hoaxing; both members had the reputation of being provocateurs. In the same year the group transformed into the “Front of the Anarcho-Revolutionary Avantgarde.”

Communist Union of Anarchists. Underground group of students of the history faculty of Dnepropetrovskiy National University. Membership of 10–12 people. Liquidated by the KGB in 1979. Practically all members gave a signed statement breaking with anarchism and the repression they were subject to was limited to expulsion from the university and the Komsomol. Strelkovskiy was sent for compulsory psychiatric treatment. Two or three former members of the Union took part in the anarchist movement during perestroika.

Confederation of Anarchists of Ukraine (KAU). Ukrainian anarchist organization of the perestroika period. Considered as the successor of the organization of the same name during the Russian Revolution of 1917–1921. Created in May 1990 as a regional organization of KAS. Printed organ: the newspaper Predtecha (Zhitomir, 1990). Maximum membership: 500. Dissolved around 1993. Attempts to resuscitate KAU occurred in 1994–1995.

Confederation of Anarcho-Syndicalists (KAS). First legal organization of anarchists of the USSR, created during perestroika in 1988–1989. Main publications: magazine: Obshchina [Commune] (Moscow, 1987–1993); newspapers: Volya [Liberty] (Moscow, 1989–1991), Nabat [Tocsin] (Kharkov, 1989–1900), Golos truda [The Voice of labour] (Novosibirsk, 1990–1991), Rabochiy [The Worker] (Seversk, 1993–1995); bulletin: KAS–KOR, then KAS–Kontakt (Moscow, 1990–1993), etc. Up until the spring of 1990 included the vast majority of anarchists of the USSR. Maximum membership – in the 3,000–5,000 range. In 1992–1995 quickly lost influence and virtually disappeared. Today small groups of anarcho-syndicalists in Siberia operate under the name KAS.

Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of the Zaporozhye Region. Regional trade union organization of the reformist type common in Western democracies, i.e. not anarcho-syndicalist, but still independent of the official Soviet state system. Created in early 1990 on the initiative of members of the Zaporozhye branch of KAS. Leaders: Artur Grigoryan, Dmitriy Dundich, and others. Printed organ: the newspaper Chornaya subbota [Black Saturday] (Zaporozhye, 1990). Maximum membership: 5,000 – 6,000. Dissolved at the start of the 1990s.

Damier, Vadim Valer’yevich (1959–). Moscow historian. As a young man he was drawn to Maoism. During perestroika he became an anarcho-communist, joined KAS and AKRS, and later was a leader of the Initiatives of Revolutionary Anarchists and the Confederation of Revolutionary Anarcho-Syndicalists. Editor of many anarchist publications.

Delo Truda [The Cause of Labor]. Newspaper, “the organ of Dnepropetrovsk anarchists.” Published “without official permission” from the end of 1988 till May 1990. Editor: Oleg Dubrovskiy. Number of issues published: 13.

Dokukin, Yuriy (1973–). Political adventurer from Kiev. In 1991 declared himself an anarcho-communist, organizer of the mythical “Front of the Anarcho-Revolutionary Avant-garde.” In the mid-1990s moved to the Maoists, leading a series of organizations which superseded one another: “Left Association of Youth,” “Revolutionary Communist Youth,” “Coordinating Council of the Labor Movement.” Had a reputation as a provocateur and blackmailer in the socialist movement. Ceased political activity at the start of the 2000s.

Dubovik, Anna Vladimirovna (1968–2005). Anarchist from Dnepropetrovsk, member of KAS, KAU, RKAS.

Dubrovskiy, Oleg Borisovich (1954–). Metalworker from Dnepropetrovsk. His anarchist propaganda among the workers dated from the late 1970s. Editor of the newspaper Delo truda (1988–1990). Starting in 1989, joined KAS, AKRS, FRAN. Organizer of independent unions and a strike movement. In 1994 he declared himself a Trotskyist, joined the “Socialist Labor Union,” collaborated with the “International Committee of the Fourth International” and the “World Socialist Web Site.” Since the start of the 2000s, has occupied himself with journalistic work as an independent anti-authoritarian Marxist.

Federation of Anarchists of the Donbas (FAD). Organization of anarcho-syndicalists of the Donbas, the eastern part of Ukraine. Created in 1990 as a regional organization of KAS and KAU. Composed of worker and student groups in Donetsk and other cities. Leader: Sergey Shevchenko. Published the newspaper Anarchiya starting in 1993. In 1994 FAD was instrumental in forming the Revolutionary Confederation of Anarcho-Syndicalists (RKAS); FAD remains to this day as the ideological-practical center of RKAS.

Federation of Revolutionary Anarchists (FRAN). International organization of anarchists based on post-Soviet territory, successor of AKRS. Founded in January 1992, bringing together adherents of revolutionary-communist anarchism from Russia, Ukraine, and Belorus. Dissolved in 1994–1995. The successors of FRAN were RKAS (Ukraine) and the Confederation of Revolutionary Anarcho-Syndicalists (KRAS: Russia, Belorus), which are still in existence today.

Federation of Socialist Social Clubs (FSOK). Interregional non-government organization in the USSR. Created in August 1987 as a federation of groups and clubs of various socialist tendencies opposing the hegemony of the KPSS. Played a noteworthy role in the political life of the USSR in 1987–1988. One of the ideological centers of FSOK was the Moscow group Obshchina and its journal of the same name. Dissolved in the summer–autumn of 1988, giving rise to the Union of Independent Socialists (soon becoming the Confederation of Anarcho-Syndicalists), the Socialist Party, and a number of other organizations.

Fidel’man, Vladimir Igorevich (1965– ). Journalist from Kharkov. During perestroika was one of the leaders of the anarchist movement in Ukraine, a member of KAS and KAU, editor of the newspaper Nabat (Kharkov, 1989–1990), organizer of the Fighting Anarcho-Revolutionary Union (BARS). After 1992 broke with anarchism. Today – a well-known fantasy writer (under the pseudonym Vladimir Sverzhin), vice-president of the Ukrainian College of Heraldry, and an instructor for the International Federation of Karate.

Fighting Anarcho-Revolutionary Union (BARS). Organization of Kharkov anarchists. Created in early 1990 to defend civil society and oppose possible Jewish pogroms. Composed of former military personnel (including veterans of the war in Afghanistan), workers, and students. Leader: Vladimir Fidel’man. Dissolved in 1991.

Front of the Anarcho-Revolutionary Vanguard (FARA). Group of Kiev anarchists. Existed during 1991–1992, with two members: Yuriy Dokukin and Oleg Novikov. Occupied exclusively with mystification, both members of the group were known as provocateurs.

GKChP [State Committee on the State of Emergency]. Self-proclaimed highest organ of state power in the USSR, formed on August 18, 1991, with the aim of putting an end to “extremist forces that have embarked on the course toward liquidating the Soviet Union, ruining the state and seizing power at any cost.” Committee chair was Vice-President of the USSR Gennady Yanayev. Unable to control the situation, the Committee was liquidated on August 21–22 by supporters of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR led by Boris Yeltsin. Members of the GKChP were arrested and charged with attempting a coup d’état, but were amnestied in 1994.

Golos truda [The Voice of Labor]. Newspaper, “independent bulletin of the Agency of anarcho-syndicalists.” Published by RKAS in Donetsk in 1995–1996. Editors: Tatyana Nosach, Sergei Shevchenko. Around 20 issues published with a circulation of 500–1000 copies.

Grigoryan, Artur (1966–). One of the leaders of the Zaporozhye organization of KAS-KAU during perestroika. Organizer of the Confederation of independent trade unions of the Zaporozhye region and editor of its newspaper Chornaya subbota (1990). In the early 1990s he went into business and virtually dropped out of the anarchist movement.

Gulyai-Polye. Journal, organ of the Donetsk branch of KAS. Its only issue was published in October–November 1989, and was printed by hand on a duplicator. Editor: Sergei Shevchenko. Circulation: several dozen copies.

Il’erkin, Leonid Sergeyevich (1973–). Sociologist, journalist. Joined the organizations of KAS-KAU and AKRS in Dnepropetrovsk starting in 1989. Left the anarchist movement in 1991, worked as a public relations director, marketing expert, translator. In 2010 returned to political activism, belonged to RKAS for a while. Today a member of the Kiev Trotskyist group Borba [Struggle].

Initiative of Revolutionary Anarchists of Ukraine (IREANU). Anarcho-communist group from Kiev. Create in 1993 as a local branch of “Initiatives of Revolutionary Anarchists” in countries of the former USSR. Leader – Vladimir Zadiraka. Membership – not more than 20 people. Dissolved in the second half of the 1990s.

International Workers’ Association (IWA-AIT). Anarcho-syndicalist International, founded in 1922.

Internatsional’naya rabochaya assotsiatsiya (IRA) [International Labour Association]. Anarcho-syndicalist organization founded in early 1991. Originally composed of small syndicates, mostly representing journalists and other workers in the field of communications. Leaders: Vladislav Strelovskiy, Yuriy Anisimov. From 1994 active exclusively in Dnepropetrovsk, included two self-managed collectives of hairdressers. Dissolved in 1999 as a result of pressure from the authorities.

Inter-Regional Deputies’ Group (IRDG).  Fraction of deputies of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR in 1989–1991, the first legal Soviet parliamentary opposition. Advocated reform of the Soviet system, especially the introduction of multiple parties and private property. Leaders of the IRDG were veteran dissident Andrei Sakharov and former Communist Party official Boris Yeltsin. In 1990 the IRDG became the basis of the “Democratic Russia” bloc, which received a plurality of seats in parliamentary elections; in 1991 Yeltsin became president of Russia. After the dissolution of the USSR, the IRDG and “Democratic Russia” broke into several parties.

Izvestiya RKAS [RKAS Report]. Information bulletin published by RKAS around the turn of the century (1990s–2000s).

Khadzhiev, Georgiy (1910–1990). Bulgarian anarcho-communist.

Kharkov organization of KAS-KAU. The most important anarchist organization of Ukraine during perestroika. Created in 1989. Leaders: Vladimir Radchenko, Igor Rassokha, Evgeniy Solov’yev, Vladimir Fidel’man. Published organ: the newspaper Nabat (1989–1990). Maximum membership: 100 – 150. At the beginning of the 1990s most of the leaders started to make careers in organs of government and broke with anarchism, after which the organization fell apart. Attempts to revive it were undertaken in 1993–1994.

Khmara, Stepan Il’ich (1937– ). Ukrainian nationalist. Participant in the dissident movement from the end of the 1960s. Persecuted by the KGB, served seven years in camps. During perestroika became one of the leaders of the extreme right-wing Ukrainian Republican Party. In 1990 elected a deputy to the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR. Today a member of the Ukrainian People’s Party.

Kinchev, Konstantin Evgen’yevich (1958–). Musician, poet, leader of the rock group “Alice” (c. 1984). In the 1980s wrote socially conscious songs, some of which were direct reflections of his anarchist views of those years (“Red on Black,” “Time to Change the Name,” “It’s All Rock-’n-Roll,” “My Generation”). Took to the barricades as a member of an anarchist brigade during the GKChP mutiny of 1991. Later became a supporter of Russian nationalism. Today a member of Patriarchal Council for Culture of the Russian Orthodox Church.

Kirichenko, Vladimir Nikolayevich (1948–). Teacher from Zaporozhye. Took part in the underground dissident and anarchist movement in the USSR starting in 1968. By the end of the 1970s was one of the key figures in distributing underground literature (“samizdat”) in Ukraine. From 1982 was subject to persecution by the KGB. Founder of the anarcho-mystical “World Brotherhood of Anarchists” (1988). Spent some time as a member of KAS (1989–1991) and RKAS (2007–2009. Today – a lecturer in the philosophy department of Zaporozhsky National University, and an anarchist by conviction.

Komsomol, All-USSR Leninist-Communist Union of Youth (VLKSM). Youth organization of the KPSS [Communist Party of the Soviet Union]. By the 1950s membership had become virtually obligatory for some categories of youth (students, members of the armed services), which soon resulted in the lack of any well-defined ideology for the mass of ordinary members. During perestroika members of the Komsomol formed the basis of opposition movements ranging from anarchists to Nazis, and senior officials of the Komsomol soon became the first post-Soviet capitalists.

Kostyenko, Dmitriy Gennad’yevich (1967–). Moscow sociologist and journalist. In 1989 became an anarcho-communist, joined KAS, then was one of the organizers of the “Initiative of Revolutionary Anarchists” and chairman of the “Studyencheskaya zashchita” [Student Defense] alliance. Pioneer of the “orange movement” in the USSR. Editor of the publications Velikiy otkaz [The Great refusal] (1990–1991), Chornaya zvesda [Black Star] (1992–1994), Noviy Nestor [The New Nestor] (1994–1996). From the mid-1990s was connected with Maoist groups, promoted the practice of Juche (the ideology of North Korea), joined the National Bolshevik Party, in connection with which he was accused of deliberately discrediting the anarchist movement and provocation. Ceased political activity at the start of the 2000s.

KPSS [Communist Party of the Soviet Union]. Name of the Soviet Marxist-Leninist party ever since 1952. The ruling and only legal party of the USSR until it was banned in 1991.

Kronstadt Revolt. Uprising of sailors of the Baltic fleet and workers of the city of Kronstadt against the Bolshevik regime in March 1921. Strongly influenced by anarchist ideas. Suppressed by the Bolsheviks with great brutality.

Krylov, Mikhail Alekseyevich (1966–). Miner-tunneller, union activist from Donetsk. From 1989 one of the leaders of the independent labor movement in the USSR. Head of the Donetsk Independent Union of Miners of Ukraine and the city strike committee during the general strike of miners in 1996. When the strike was crushed, he was arrested and sentenced to two years of prison, but was soon released under the terms of an amnesty. In the mid-1990s he sympathized with the anarchists and worked closely with RKAS. Today he continues to head the DNPGU.

Left Association of Youth (LOM).  Left-radical organization of Kiev, created in March 1993. Brought together supporters of various socialist tendencies from social-democracy to anarchism, with a predominance of Maoists and anarchists. Leaders: Vladimir Zadiraka, Vladimir Osipenko, Pavel Shidlovskiy. Despite its small membership (25 people), for a long time it was the most active left-wing organization in the capital of Ukraine. Dissolved at the end of the 1990s.

Makhnovets. Newspaper, “organ of the anarchists-makhnovists.” Published “without prior arrangement” in Cherkassy in 1988–1990. Editor: Nikolai Ozimov. Circulation: 500 – 3,000. Published at least seven issues.

“Memorial.” International association of non-governmental historical-research and human-rights organizations. Started in 1987–88 to study the history of political repression in the USSR, as well as arranging for material and legal assistance to the victims of repression and their descendants. During the first years of its existence, often served as legal cover for activities of opponents of the Soviet regime.

Nabat [Alarum]. Newspaper, organ of KAS. Five issues were published in Kharkov from the summer of 1989 till January 1990. Editors: Vladimir Radchenko and Vladimir Fidel’man. Circulation: 3,000–5,000 copies. Played an important role in the process of organizing the anarchists of Ukraine during perestroika.

Nestor. News agency founded in Zhitomir in early 1991 by members of KAS-KAU. Director: Yuriy Anisimov. In 1991–1993 published the news bulletin Nestor, dealing with news about the anarchist movement and social life. Around 300 issues were published.

Novikov, Oleg Anatol’yevich (1973–). Political adventurer, whose social activity began in the extreme right-wing National-Democratic Party of Ukraine. In 1991 declared himself an anarcho-communist, the organizer of the mythical “Front of the Anarcho-Revolutionary Vanguard” and the “Association of Anarchist Movements (Marxist-Leninist).” In 1992 moved from Ukraine to Belarus, took part in the creation of the Federation of Anarchists of Belarus and the Confederation of Revolutionary Anarchists. Had a reputation as a provocateur in the anarchist movement, and in 1996 was officially declared a provocateur by the German FAU. Today – chairman of the Green Party of Belarus, and a parliamentary opposition politician.

Novomirskiy, Yakov (1882–after 1936). Ideologue of anarcho-syndicalism in Russia.

Obshchina. Historical political club, then an historical-political association. Founded in September 1987 by students of the faculties of history and physics of Moscow University who were interested in socialist tendencies, anarchism especially, which offered an alternative to the official Marxist-Leninist ideology. Published a journal of the same name which made the club the center for bringing together similar groups from other cities of the USSR. In early 1989 the Obshchina group provided the basis for creation of the Confederation of Anarcho-Syndicalists (KAS).

Obshchina. Journal, organ of the historical-political association of the same name, then of the Moscow branch of KAS. Published from September 1987 till September 1993. Forty-nine editions came out, including three special issues. Editors were Vladimir Gubarev, Andey Isayev, Aleksandr Shubin, Vladlyen Tupikin, and others. The journal played an outstanding role in the establishment and development of the anarchist movement in the USSR.

Ozimov, Nikolay Mikhailovich (c. 1943–2005). Professional engraver from Cherkassy. From the early 1960s distributed anarchist leaflets and so subjected to systematic persecution by the KGB, resulting in several prison terms and forced psychiatric treatment. Carried on lengthy (up to 10 months long) hunger strikes, and became an invalid. In 1989–1991 joined KAS and KAU, edited the newspaper Makhnovets. In the early 1990s declared himself a wizard and healer, tried to create an anarcho-pagan sect “Volka Luna” [Wolf Moon].

Perestroika. [Rebuilding.] Period in the history of the USSR (1985-1991), during which top party leaders initiated a series of economic and political reforms which ended in the collapse of so-called “socialist bloc” and the USSR itself.

Pirumova, Natalya Mikhailovna (1923–1997). Soviet historian. Wrote studies of Herzen, Bakunin, and Kropotkin which were published during the Brezhnev era. Despite censorship and a superficial fidelity to the official ideology, her books provided a glimpse of libertarian thought. During the last years of her life, she called herself an anarchist and took part in demonstrations in memory of Kropotkin.

Predtecha. Newspaper, organ of KAS. Pubished in Zhitomir from April to August 1990. Editor Yuriy Anisimov. Three issues with a circulation of between one and two thousand.

Pryama diya. [Direct action.] Student organization in Kiev. Created in 1993, it was strongly influenced by anarchist and Maoist ideas. Dissolved at the end of the 1990s. A new left-radical student organization with the same name was started in Kiev in 2008 and is still in existence.

Radchenko, Vladimir (1964–). One of the leaders of the Ukrainian anarchists during perestroika, a member of KAS and KAU. Editor of the newspaper Nabat (Kharkov, 1989–1990). In 1991 was elected a deputy to the Kharkov oblast Soviet and soon broke with anarchism.

Rassokha, Igor Nikolayevich (1965– ). Historian and philosopher from Kharkov. One of the principal leaders of the anarchist movement of Ukraine during perestroika, a member of KAS and KAU. In 1991 became the assistant of the deputy chairperson of the Ukrainian parliament and left the anarchist movement. Today he is an associate professor at the Kharkov National Academy of Municipal Economy, and an advisor to the head of the Department of humanitarian issues of the Kharkov regional state administration.

Revolutionary Confederation of Anarchists-Syndicalists (RKAS). Organization of anarcho-syndicalists and anarcho-communists of Ukraine. Founded in October 1994. Printed organs: the newspaper Anarkhiya (Donetsk, published from 1993), the journal Anarkho-syndikalist (Donetsk, Dnepropetrovsk, 1994–2003), and others. Maximum membership: 200 – 250. Still in existence and  active in Ukraine, Georgia, Russia.

Revolutionary proletarian cells (RPYa). The first Trotskyist organization in the USSR. Created in the summer of 1990 on the basis of the Leningrad branch of the Anarcho-Communist Revolutionary Union. Leader Dmitriy Zhvaniya. Printed organs: the newspaper Rabochaya bor’ba [The Worker’s struggle] (1990–1996) and the bulletin Sotsialisticheskiy rabochiy (1991–1992). In 1991–1993 affiliated with the Trotskyist International Socialist Tendency. In 1997 joined the National-Bolshevik Party.

Rokotchistogoserdtsa [This portmanteau name emphasized a dual meaning: “Rock from the pure heart” and “Murmur of the pure heart”]. Newspaper. Pubished in Lugansk by members of a local rock club in 1990–1991. Devoted to the popularization of rock music, anarchism and Buddhism.

Rukh, “National Movement of Ukraine.” Ukrainian political organization. Created in September 1989 as a citizens’ movement in support of democratic reform in the USSR. Originally Rukh brought together adherents of very different views, from liberal communists to radical nationalists. Some anarchists also participated in starting Rukh. In 1990–1991 several organizations split from Rukh, after which it was transformed into a political party with a national-democratic line. Today it is the Ukrainian People’s Party “Rukh.”

Sakharov, Andrey Dmitrievich (1921–1989). Physicist, creator of the Soviet hydrogen bomb. In the 1960s he took up a position in opposition to the Soviet regime, becoming the best-known dissident and human rights advocate in the USSR. Nobel laureate (1975). During perestroika was considered the spiritual leader of the democratic opposition.

Shevchuk, Yuriy Yulianovich (1957– ). Musician, poet, leader of the rock group DDT (started in 1980). Son of Party bigwig, became a hippy at 15 and a staunch opponent of the Soviet regime. Persecuted by the KGB. During perestroika called himself an anarchist, and was a leading representative of socially-conscious rock music (the songs “Revolution,” “Time,” “Terrorist,” etc.). Later continued to perform songs on social themes, and remained one of the main figures of the Russian rock scene, but was no longer connected with the anarchist movement. Supports the democratic opposition to Putin’s regime.

“Solidarity” [Independent Self-governing Trade Union “Solidarity”]. Federation of independent-of-the-state unions opposing the ruling regime in Poland. Created in 1980, and carried on an active struggle for economic and social interests of the workers. After the introduction of martial law in December 1981, went underground. Legalized at the end of the 1980s and victorious in the parliamentary elections of 1989. The leader of Solidarity, Lech Wałęsa, became president of Poland and expedited the process of capitalist reforms.

Solov’yev, Yeveniy (1965–). A leader of the Ukrainian anarchists during the perestroika period, a member of KAS and KAU. In 1991 was elected a deputy of the Kharkov oblast Soviet and broke with anarchism. Subsequently worked as a lawyer. Today – a deputy of the Kharkov city Soviet and secretary of the environmental organization “Green Front.”

Sotsprof. Federation of independent trade unions of the USSR, then Russia. Created in April 1989. Originally called the “Federation of Socialist Trade Unions of the USSR,” bringing together supporters of various socialist tendencies, from “pure-and-simple” unionists to communists. Leaders: Sergey Khramov, Lev Volovik, and others. In 1991 transformed into the “Federation of Russian Trade Unions Sotsprof”; by that time left-of-center views dominated in the organization. In the 1990s participated in founding the Pan-Russian Confederation of Labor and the Russian Party of Labor. Still in existence.

Strelkovskiy, Vladislav Alekseyevich (1955–?). Photographer, later an unskilled laborer, from Dnepropetrovsk. While a student, organized the Communist Union of Anarchists (1978–1979). Constantly persecuted by the KGB. In 1989–1991 joined KAS, KAU and AKRS, then started the anarchist International Labor Association, which dissolved in 1999. Spent some time in RKAS. Disappeared at the end of the 2000s.

Tigra Nigra [Black Tigers]. Anarcho-communist group from Kiev. Created in 1996 by students of Kiev University. Leader: Maksim Butkevich. Around 20 members. newspaper Pereday dal’she [Go further] (1998). Dissolved in 1998 as a result of police persecution.

UVD [Dept. of Internal Affairs]. Police department; territorial branch of the Ministry of Internal Affairs; also known as the “militia.”

Ukrainian National Self-Defense [full name: Ukrainian National Assembly – Ukrainian National Self-Defense, UNA-UNSO]. Ukrainian radical right-wing party. Created in 1990–1991. Leaders in the 1990s were Oleg Bitovich, Dimitriy Korchinskiy, Yuriy Shukhevich, etc. Militarized formations of UNA-UNSO took part in many armed conflicts on the territory of the former USSR during the period 1991–2008. Today operates as a right-wing parliamentary opposition under the leadership of Shukhevich.

Ukrsotsprof. Federation of independent trade unions of the Ukrainian SSR. Created in 1990 as part of the “Federation of Socialist Trade Unions of the USSR Sotsprof.” In 1990–1991 anarcho-syndicalists exerted an appreciable influence in the organization. After the dissolution of the USSR carried on for some time independently. Ceased existence in the early 1990s.

Ukrainian SSR [Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic]. Quasi-state formation in the structure of the USSR. At the end of 1991 transformed into the independent state Ukraine.

Verkhovnyy Soviet [Supreme Soviet]. Highest legislative organ of the USSR; its constituent union and autonomous republics also had their own Supreme Soviets. These bodies were analogous to the national and regional parliaments of Western-style democracies.

Vosstayushaya Ukraina [Insurgent Ukraine]. Journal, organ of RKAS for promoting anarchism in youth sub-cultures. Editor: Sergei Shevchenko. Published in Donetsk in 2000–2001. Two issues printed.

World Brotherhood of Anarchists. Group of mystical anarchists. Started by Vladimir Kirichenko in Zaporozhye in 1988; affiliated with KAS for some time. Membership: around 10 people. Unsuccessfully tried to extend its activities to other cities of the USSR. Formally still exists.

Zhitomirskiy Anarchist Union (ZhAS). Organization of anarcho-syndicalists of Zhitomir. Created in 1989. Leader Yuriy Anisimov. Maximum membership – 20 people. Published the newspapers Chorniy Internatsional (1989) and Predtecha (1990). Dissolved in 1992–1993.